Although ancient writes claim that the name of Ephesus derives from an Amazon Queen’s name, the archaeological finds reveals that The Carians and Lelegians, the native peoples of Anatolia, had settled here long before the Ionians’ arrival. Ephesus was first established in 6000 B.C and grew up around the Temple of Artemis. The Ephesians started to move to the new city built by Lysimachos in the 3rd century B.C. The following is the list of the various ruins of Ephesus as they appear from the upper gate, which leads to the House of Virgin Mary, to the lower gate.
THE MAGNESIAN GATE
This is the only city gate that survives up to the present day. There is not much thing to see today.
THE EAST GYMNASIUM
The East Gymnasium, one of the monumental structures of Ephesus, the gymnasium, is a complex that includes baths, palaestrae (exercise fields), study halls, and imperial cult rooms. According to an inscription it was built by famous sophist Flavius Damianus and his wife Vedia Phaedrina.
THE VARIUS BATHS
The Varius Baths were constructed in the 1st century B.C. During the excavations, parts of a bath and a roman latrine came to light. These structures next to the bath might belong to a gymnasium that may have been part of the complex.
THE WATER SYSTEM AND NYMPHENIUM
The water springs are rather away from the fountains and houses in Ephesus. This monumental fountain on the street bounding the south side of the state was supplied by the Marnas River. The large fountain is well integrated into the street that fronts it. This monumental fountain was built between 4-14 A.D., and underwent various renovations the last of which was in the fourth century.
THE STATE AGORA
The state agora, measures 160 X 73 meters and was constructed in the 1st century A.D. It was the place the location of official religious and civic ceremonies, of government assemblies, and of the mercantile activities of the larger trading concerns that were subject to government regulation.
This structure was devoted both to civic meetings and musical and theatrical performances. It seated 1400 people, and was constructed by Vedius Antonius and his wife Papiana in the second century A.D.
The Prytaneion (town hall ) was considered to be the sacred place of the city. It contained the altar of Hestia Boulaia, where a sacred fire burnt perpetually for centuries and was never extinguished. This the find spot of the two great statues of the Ephesian Artemis which are displayed at the museum now. The building was built in the 3rd century B.C during the reign of Lysimachos. The ruins seen today are dated to 1st century A.D. Two later temples near the site were dedicated to Emperor Julius Caesar and Dea Roma, the divine personification of the city of Rome.
THE WATER PALACE
It was built by proconsul Laecanius Bassus in 80 A.D., and is also called the “Water palace" because of its monumental appearance.
THE MEMMIUS MONUMENT
Memmius was one of the grandsons of Sulla, the famous Roman general. This monument dedicated to him was constructed in the first century A.D. during the reign of emperor August. A fountain was built into the northwest corner of the monument in the fourth century A.D.
THE TEMPLE OF DOMITIAN
Dedicated to Domitian, this is the first structure in Ephesus to be built in honour of a Roman emperor. The temple was erected on a terrace supported by a substructure measuring 50 by 100meters. The substructure of the temple is used as "Inscription Gallery" today.
THE POLLIO FOUNTAIN
This structure dedicated to C.Sextilius Pollio in 97 A.D. It was decorated by the statue group of Odysseus and Polyphemus, and a basin stood in front of it.
THE GATE OF HERCULES
Just before the Street of the Curetes stand the remains of ancient gate known as the Gate of Hercules. This name arises from the figures of Hercules on the western faces of the two extant pillars. The capitals of the columns were decorated with acanthus leaves. Presumably these pillars, along with four others were standing on the beam above the arch of the gate.
THE STREETS OF KOURETES
Owing to the fact that this street was used by a six-membered-class of civic priests, who were chosen anew each year, and played an important role in the management of the city, it was given “Kouretes Street. The porticoes flanked both sides of the street, which provided shade for pedestrian, and behind of which were located the various shops. The street was lined by statues of prominent Ephesians. After three severe earthquakes hit the city in the 4th century A.D. the street was restored. The main sewer system in Ephesus lies beneath this marble pavement of the street.
THE FOUNTAIN OF TRAJAN
It was dedicated to the emperor Trajan (98- 117), and constructed between 102-114 A.D. The two storied fountain had a colossal statue of Emperor Trajan in the middle.
THE SCOLASTICA BATHS
The first construction on this site dates to the first century, and was later connected to the brothel and the latrine. The three storied bath dates to 400A.D. comprises a various rooms for bathing and lounging along with a library and has a capacity of 1000.
The general toilets had a square pool in the middle surrounded on four sides by toilet seats, in front of which was a channel of running water. The floor of this place was covered with mosaics.
THE HADRIAN TEMPLE
The Hadrian Temple is one of the most impressive constructions in Ephesus. It was dedicated to the Emperor Hadrian (118-138 A.D.) The relief of Tyche, the goddess of city, is seen on the pediment of the temple. The legend about how Ephesus was established is also depicted on the friezes of the temple.
THE SLOPE HOUSES
These two or three storied houses belonged to the wealthy people of Ephesus were first built in the 1st century A.D. They were used as dwelling, with some renovations and repair until the seventh century. The walls were garnished with frescoes and the floors were decorated with mosaics.
This two storied structure built during the reign of Emperor Trajan, forms a complex with the Scholastica Baths the latrines. The walls were decorated with frescoes and the floor was covered with mosaics.
THE LIBRARY OF CELSUS
The Celsus Library was erected in A.D 135 by Julius Aquila for his father Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, the consul of Asia province of Roman Empire. The library, measuring 60.90 by 16.72 meters had a two storied facade and a large room inside. Its facade contains exemplars of architectural elements that are among the most beautiful ones of the period, such as doors, windows, gables, niches and columns. A gap of one meter between inner and outer walls of the the library protected the books from extremes of temperature and humidity. The sarcophagus of Celsus stand under the west side of the library. Four female statues standing between the columns personify the virtues of Celsus: Sophia (wisdom), Arete (virtue), Ennoia (intelligence), Episteme (knowledge). Celsus himself is buried in a sarcophagus beneath the west side of the library.
THE GATE OF MAZAEUS AND MITHRIDATES
This gate to the Agora was erected in 4-3 B.C by the freed slaves Mazaeus and Mithridates in honour of their former masters emperor Augustus and his family.
THE COMMERCIAL AGORA
The commercial agora , one of the significant centres in Ephesus was the real market place for trade in Ephesus. It was square and enclosed on all four sides by stoas. The agora was set up during the Hellenistic age and rebuilt during the reign of Emperor Nero and again in the 3rd century A.D.
THE TEMPLE OF SERAPIS
A path with a flight of stairs at the southwest corner of the Agora leads to the Temple of Serapis. The temple was rising on a high terrace .This prostyle temple had columns in the Corinthian order, each of which had a diameter of 1.5 meters and a total weight of 57 tons.
THE MARBLE ROAD
The sacred way that surrounds the Panayır Mountain is called the marble Street here, and is well preserved. The road was intended for vehicles, since pedestrians could use the colonnade. The huge sewer system of the city, which had a channel large enough to be entered by a human being also was running under this street.
THE GREAT THEATRE
It is situated on the slope of Mount Panayır. It was first built in the Hellenistic times and renovated in the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D. It seated 24.000 spectators. The stage building was three storied and rose to a height of 18 m. The cavea, the seating area, had consisted of three superimposed sections. The theatre was the scene of gladiatorial fights during the late Roman period.
During the early years of the Christianity, St.Paul who came to Ephesus to spread Christianty and he wanted to address to the crowd at the theatre. The silversmith Demetrius provoked the people against St. Paul because he earned a lot of many with his handmade Artemis statues and they shouted altogether “ Artemis of Ephesus is great, The greatest is Artemis”. So St.Paul was forced to leave Ephesus and he continued his journey to Macedonia.
THE ARKADIANE (HARBOUR) WAY
It was constructed in late Hellenistic period and renovated by the Emperor Arcadius (395 - 405) and known by his name. It is 500 m. in length and 11m. in width The shops were located on both sides of the Arkadiane way. It is also known as "Harbour Way"
THE THEATRE GYMNASIUM
This structure was built in the early period of the Roman Empire. Since it is situated next to the theatre it is also called "The Theatre Gymnasium" It is the largest gymnasium at Ephesus
THE HARBOUR GYMNASIUM AND BATHS:
There were two palaestras (athletic training grounds), one of which was 90 sq.m area and the other 200mx240m. The structure was built in the reigns of Emperors Domitian and Hadrian. The baths were erected in the second century. Since the baths were renovated in the 4th century they were also called “The Constantines Baths".
THE CHUCH OF VIRGIN MARY (THE CHURCH OF COUNCILS)
This church, one of the important edifices of Christianity, is the first church which was dedicated to Virgin Mary. The third meeting of the Ecumenical Council was held in this church in A.D 431.
The stadium measured 230mx30m and resembled a horse-shoe. The entrance was in its west facade. Seats for the spectators on the south side were constructed on the slopes of Mt.Pion while those on the north were built over a vaulted substructure .The first site of the stadium appears to go back to the Hellenistic period, and during the reign of the Emperor Nero (54-68 A.D.) it underwent transformation.
THE VEDIUS GYMNASIUM
The gymnasium, one of the preserved buildings to be found in Ephesus, was erected in A.D 150 by P.Vedius Antonius, one of the prominent wealthy Ephesians of the time and dedicated to the Emperor Pius and the goddess Artemis.
on the west coast of Turkey, was an important sacred site in the ancient Greek world. Its famous oracle and Temple of Apollo attracted crowds of pilgrims and was second in importance only to Delphi. Today, the temple's magnificent ruins still attract thousands of visitors - Didyma is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Turkey. The modern name of the town is Didim.
Didyma means "twin" and refers to the twins Apollo and Artemis, who were born to Zeus and Leto. The Temple of Artemis was in the nearby city of Miletus, while the much more important Temple of Apollo was in Didyma.
The Temple of Apollo at Didyma, also known as the Didymaion, has a long history. Pausanias (c. 160 AD) said the Didymaion was constructed before Greek colonization (10th century BC), and some date it to the 2nd millennium BC.
However, the earliest fragments of the temple found thus far date to the end of the 8th century BC. This Archaic temple was in the charge of the Branchids, a priestly caste named after Branchus, a favourite youth of Apollo. Three prose oracles and one dedication survive from this period.
The original temple was destroyed by Darius I of Persia in 494 BC, who looted many of the statues and its vast treasury built up by the generous gifts of Croesus, King of Lydia. The Branchids were exiled to Sogdiana.
After Alexander the Great conquered Miletus in 334 BC, the oracle of Apollo at Didyma was resanctified and quickly regained its importance. Thereafter Miletus administered the cult of Apollo, annually electing a prophet. In 313 BC, the Milesians began to build a new Hellenistic temple on the site of the earlier shrine, which they intended to be the largest in the Greek world. It is this temple that visitors see today.
Construction continued during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, and portions were still under construction in the Roman period. It was never entirely completed. Modern experts believe the magnificent temple would have been one of the seven wonders of the ancient world had it been completed. Even incomplete, the temple is enormous and impressive; it is the third largest in the ancient world after those of Ephesus and Samos.
In ancient times, pilgrims walked 12 miles (20 km) along the Sacred Way from Miletus to the sanctuary at Didyma participate in the annual spring festival, the Didymeia. The festival became Panhellenic in the beginning of the 2nd century BC.
The Oracle of Apollo at Didyma rivaled that of Delphi; pilgrims flocked to Didyma not only to worship Apollo and attend the festival, but also to find answers about their future. Famous persons known to have visited Didyma's Temple of Apollo include Alexander the Great's generals Lysimachus and Seleucus I, and the Roman emperors Augustus and Trajan.
A strict ritual surrounded the giving of oracles. Oracles could only be given on a limited number of days; the absolute minimum was every four days, but the interval was often much longer, perhaps many months. The session began with a three-day fast by the priestess, during which time she resided in the adyton (sacred precinct).
On the appointed day, the priestess would take a ritual bath and enter the naiskos (inner chapel). Meanwhile, those who wished to consult the oracle sacrificed outside and choruses sang hymns to the gods.
The priestess sat on an axle suspended over the sacred spring and, when a question was asked of her, she would dip her foot or her dress into the spring before giving her answer. The oracular responses were probably given in prose, which were then turned into verse by the priests or prophets, who were appointed by Miletus.
Didyma's fate was probably sealed in 303 AD, when an oracle advised the Emperor Diocletian to initiate his persecution of the Christian church. Constantine the Great, who was raised in the court of Diocletian and later converted to Christianity, closed the oracle and executed the priests.
In the 5th century AD, Emperor Theodosius built a Christian basilica in the adyton (sacred precinct) of the temple at Didyma, which testifies to the site's religious importance. Indeed, a number of oracles have been found on inscriptions and in literary sources that postdate Constantine's closure.
The church and much of the temple stood until the 15th century, when a great earthquake reduced the temple to rubble. Excavations made between 1905 and 1930 revealed all of the incomplete Hellenistic temple and some carved pieces of the earlier temple and statues. .
The god and human, nature and art are together in there, they have created such a perfect place that it is valuable to see." Lamartine’s famous poetic line reveals his love for İstanbul, describing the embracing of two continents, with one arm reaching out to Asia and the other to Europe.
İstanbul, once known as the capital of capital cities, has many unique features. It is the only city in the world to straddle two continents, and the only one to have been a capital during two consecutive empires - Christian and Islamic. Once was capital of the Ottoman Empire, İstanbul still remains the commercial, historical and cultural pulse of Turkey, and its beauty lies in its ability to embrace its contradictions. Ancient and modern, religious and secular, Asia and Europe, mystical and earthly all co-exist here.
Its variety is one of İstanbul’s greatest attractions: The ancient mosques, palaces, museums and bazaars reflect its diverse history. The thriving shopping area of Taksim buzzes with life and entertainment. And the serene beauty of the İstanbul strait, Princes Islands and parks bring a touch of peace to the otherwise chaotic metropolis.
Adalar, Avcılar, Bağcılar, Bahçelievler, Bakırköy, Beşiktaş, Bayrampaşa, Beykoz, Beyoğlu, Eminönü, Eyüb, Fatih, Gaziosmanpaşa, Kadıköy, Kâğıthane, Kartal, Küçükçekmece, Pendik, Sarıyer, Şişli, Ümraniye, Üsküdar, Zeytinburnu, Büyükçekmece, Çatalca, Silivri, Şile, Esenler, Güngören, Maltepe, Sultanbeyli, and Tuzla.
The İstanbul strait
Golden Horn: This horn-shaped estuary divides European İstanbul. One of the best natural harbours in the world, it was once the centre for the Byzantine and Ottoman navies and commercial shipping interests. Today, attractive parks and promenades line the shores, a picturesque scene especially as the sun goes down over the water. At Fener and Balat, neighbourhoods midway up the Golden Horn, there are entire streets filled with old wooden houses, churches, and synagogues dating from Byzantine and Ottoman times. The Orthodox Patriarchy resides at Fener and a little further up the Golden Horn at Eyup, are some wonderful examples of Ottoman architecture. Muslim pilgrims from all over the world visit Eyup Mosgue and Tomb of Eyup, the Prophet Mohammed’s standard bearer, and it is one of the holiest places in Islam. The area is a still a popular burial place, and the hills above the mosque are dotted with modern gravestones interspersed with ornate Ottoman stones. The Pierre Loti Cafe, at the top of hill overlooking the shrine and the Golden Horn, is a wonderful place to enjoy the tranquility of the view.
Beyoğlu and Taksim: Beyoğlu is an interesting example of a district with European-influenced architecture, from a century before. Europe’s second oldest subway, Tunel was built by the French in 1875, must be also one of the shortest – offering a one-stop ride to start of Taksim. Near to Tunel is the Galata district, whose Galata Tower became a famous symbols of İstanbul, and the top of which offers a tremendous 180 degree view of the city.
From the Tunel area to Taksim square, is one of the city’s focal points for shopping, entertainment and urban promenading: İstiklal Caddesi is a fine example of the contrasts and compositions of İstanbul; fashion shops, bookshops, cinemas, markets, restaurants and even hand-carts selling trinkets and simit (sesame bread snack) ensure that the street is packed throughout the day until late into the night. The old tramcars re-entered into service, which shuttle up and down this fascinating street, and otherwise the street is entirely pedestrianised. There are old embassy buildings, Galatasaray High School, the colourful ambience of Balık Pazarı (Fish Bazaar) and restaurants in Çiçek Pasaji (Flower Passage). Also on this street is the oldest church in the area, St Mary’s Draperis dating back to 1789, and the Franciscan Church of St Antoine, demolished and then rebuilt in 1913.
The street ends at Taksim Square, a big open plaza, the hub of modern İstanbul and always crowded, crowned with an imposing monument celebrating Ataturk and the War of Independence. The main terminal of the new subway is under the square, adjacent is a noisy bus terminal, and at the north end is the Ataturk Cultural Centre, one of the venues of the İstanbul Theatre Festival. Several five-star hotels are dotted around this area, like the Hyatt, Intercontinental and Hilton (the oldest of its kind in the city). North of the square is the İstanbul Military Museum.
Taksim and Beyoğlu have for centuries been the centre of nightlife, and now there are many lovely bars and clubs off Istiklal Cadesi, including some of the only gay venues in the city. Beyoğlu is also at the centre of the more bohemian arts scene.
Sultanahmet: Many places of tourist interest are concentrated in Sultanahmet, in heart of the Imperial Centre of the Ottoman Empire. The most important places in this area, all of which are described in detail in the “Places of Interest” section, are Topkapı Palace, Aya Sofya, Sultanahmet Mosgue (the Blue Mosque), the Hippodrome, Kapalı Carşı (Covered Market), Yerebatan Sarnıcı and the Museum of Islamic Art.
In addition to this wonderful selection of historical and architectural sites, Sultanahmet also has a large concentration of carpet and souvenir shops, hotels and guesthouses, cafes, bars and restaurants, and travel agents.
Ortaköy: Ortakoy was a resort for the Ottoman rulers because of its attractive location on the İstanbul strait, and is still a popular spot for residents and visitors. The village is within a triangle of a mosque, church and synagogue, and is near çirağan Palace, Kabataş High School, Feriye, Princess Hotel.
The name Ortaköy reflects the university students and teachers who would gather to drink tea and discuss life, when it was just a small fishing village. These days, however, that scene has developed into a suburb with an increasing amount of expensive restaurants, bars, shops and a huge market. The fishing, however, lives on and the area is popular with local anglers, and there is now a huge waterfront tea-house which is crammed at weekends and holidays.
Sarıyer: The first sight of Sarıyer is where the İstanbul strait connects with the Black Sea, after the bend in the river after Tarabya. Around this area, old summer houses, embassies and fish restaurants line the river, and a narrow road which separates it from Büyükdere, continues along to the beaches of Kilyos.
Sarıyer and Rumeli Kavağı are the final wharfs along the European side visited by the İstanbul strait boat trips. Both these districts, famous for their fish restaurants along with Anadolu Kavagı, get very crowded at weekends and holidays with İstanbul residents escaping the city.
After these points, the İstanbul strait is lined with tree-covered cliffs and little habitation. The Sadberk Hanım Museum, just before Sariyer, is an interesting place to visit; a collection of archaeological and ethnographic items, housed in two wooden houses. A few kilometres away is the huge Belgrade Forest, once a haunting ground of the Ottomans, and now a popular weekend retreat into the largest forest area in the city.
Üsküdar: Relatively unknown to tourists, the suburb of Üsküdar, on the Asian side of the İstanbul strait, is one of the most attractive suburbs. Religiously conservative in its background, it has a tranquil atmosphere and some fine examples of imperial and domestic architecture.
The iskele, or Mihrimah Mosgue is opposite the main ferry pier, on a high platform with a big covered porch in front, often occupied by older local men watching life around them. Opposite this is Yeni Valide Mosgue, built in 1710, and the Valide Sultan’s green tomb rather like a giant birdcage. The Çinili Mosque takes its name from the beautiful tiles which decorate the interior, and was built in 1640.
Apart from places of religious interest, Üsküdar is also well known as a shopping area, with old market streets selling traditional local products, and a good fleamarket with second hand furniture. There are plenty of good restaurants and cafes with a great views of the İstanbul strait and the rest of the city, along the quayside. In the direction of Haydarpaşa is the Karaca Ahmet Cemetery, which is the largest Muslim graveyard in İstanbul. The front of the Çamlıca hills lie at the ridge of area and also offer great panoramic views of the islands and river.
Kadıköy: Further down to the south along, the İstanbul strait towards the Marmara sea, Kadıköy has developed into a lively area with up-market shopping, eating and entertainment making it popular especially with wealthy locals. Once prominent in the history of Christianity, the 5th century hosted important consul meetings here, but there are few reminders of that age. It is one of the improved districts of İstanbul over the last century, and fashionable area to promenade along the waterfront in the evenings, especially around the marinas and yacht clubs.
Bağdat Caddesi is one of the most trendy – and label-conscious – fashion shopping streets, and for more down-to-earth goods, the Gen Azim Gündüz Caddesi is the best place for clothes, and the bit pazari on Ozelellik Sokak is good for browsing through junk. The Benadam art gallery remains in Moda district with many other foreing cusines, restaurants and cafes.
Haydarpaşa: To the north of Kadikoy is Haydarpasa, and the train station built in 1908 with Prussian-style architecture which was the first stop along the Baghdad railway. Now it is the main station going to eastbound destinations both within Turkey, and international. There are tombs and monuments dedicated to the English and French soldiers who lost their lives during the Crimean War (1854-56), near the military hospital. The north-west wing of the 19th Century Selimiye Barracks once housed the hospital, used by Florence Nightingale to care for soldiers, and remains to honour her memory.
Polonezköy: Polonezköy, although still within the city, is 25 km. away from the centre and not easy to reach by public transport. Translated as “village of the Poles”, the village has a fascinating history: It was established in 1848 by Prince Czartorisky, leader of the Polish nationals who was granted exile in the Ottoman Empire to escape oppression in the Balkans. During his exile, he succeeded in establishing a community of Balkans, which still survives, on the plot of land sold to him by a local monastery.
Since the 1970s the village has become a popular place with local İstanbulites, who buy their pig meat there (pig being forbidden under Islamic law and therefore difficult to get elsewhere). All the Poles have since left the village, and the place is inhabited now by wealthy city people, living in the few remaining Central European style wooden houses with pretty balconies.
What attracts most visitors to Polonezkoy is its vast green expanse, which was designated İstanbul’s first national park, and the walks though forests with streams and wooden bridges. Because of its popularity, it gets crowded at weekends and the hotels are usually full.
Kilyos: Kilyos is the nearest beach resort to the city, on the Black Sea coast on the European side of the İstanbul strait. Once a Greek fishing village, it has quickly been developed as a holiday-home development, and gets very crowded in summer. Because of its ease to get there, 25km and plenty of public transport, it is good for a day trip, and is a popular weekend getaway with plenty of hotels, and a couple of campsites.
Şile: A pleasant, small holiday town, Şile lies 50km from Üsküdar on the Black Sea coast and some people even live there and commute into İstanbul. The white sandy beaches are easily accessible from the main highway, lying on the west, as well as a series of small beaches at the east end. The town itself if perched on a clifftop over looking the bay tiny island. There is an interesting French-built black-and-white striped lighthouse, and 14th century Genoese castle on the nearby island. Apart from its popular beaches, the town is also famous for its craft; Şile bezi, a white muslin fabric a little like cheesecloth, which the local women embroider and sell their products on the street, as well as all over Turkey.
The town has plenty of accommodation available, hotels, guest houses and pensions, although can get very crowded at weekends and holidays as it is very popular with people from İstanbul for a getaway, especially in the summer. There are small restaurants and bars in the town.
Prince’s Islands: Also known as İstanbul Islands, there are eight within one hour from the city, in the Marmara Sea. Boats ply the islands from Sirkeci, Kabataş and Bostancı, with more services during the summer. These islands, on which monasteries were established during the Byzantine period, was a popular summer retreat for palace officials. It is still a popular escape from the city, with wealthier owning summer houses.
Büyükada The largest and most popular one in İstanbul is Büyükada (the Great Island). Large wooden mansions still remain from the 19th century when wealthy Greek and Armenian bankers built them as a holiday villas. The island has always been a place predominantly inhabited by minorities.
Buyukada has long had a history of people coming here in exile or retreat; its most famous guest being Leon Trotsky, who stayed for four years writing ‘The History of the Russian Revolution’. The monastery of St George also played host to the granddaughter of Empress Irene, and the royal princess Zoe, in 1012.
The island consists of two hills, both surmounted by monasteries, with a valley between. Motor vehicles are banned, so getting around the island can be done by graceful horse and carriage, leaving from the main square off Isa Celebi Sokak. Bicycles can also be hired.
The southern hill, Yule Tepe, is the quieter of the two and also home of St George’s Monastery. It consists of a series of chapels on three levels, the site of which is a building dating back to the 12th century. In Byzantine times it was used as an asylum, with iron rings on the church floors used to restrain patients. On the northern hill is the monastery İsa Tepe, a 19th century house.
The entire island is lively and colourful, with many restaurants, hotels, tea houses and shops. There are very big well-kept houses, trim gardens, and pine groves, as well as plenty of beach and picnic areas.
Burgazada It is a smaller and less infrastructured for tourists.The famous Turkish novelist, Sait Faik Abasıyanık lived there, and his house has been turned into a museum dedicated to his work, and retains a remarkable tranquil and hallowed atmosphere.
Heybeliada ‘Island of the Saddlebag’, because of its shape, is loved for its natural beauty and beaches. It also has a highly prestigious and fashionable watersports club in the northwest of the island. One of its best-known landmarks is the Greek Orthodox School of Theology, with an important collection of Byzantine manuscripts. The school sits loftily on the northern hill, but permission is needed to enter, from the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in Fener. The Deniz Harp Okulu, the Naval High School, is on the east side of the waterfront near the jetty, which was originally the Naval War Academy set up in 1852, then a high school since 1985. Walking and cycling are popular here, plus isolated beaches as well as the public Yöruk Beach, set in a magnificent bay.
There are plenty of good local restaurants and tea houses, especially along Ayyıldız Caddesi, and the atmosphere is one of a close community.
Environment: Wide beaches of Kilyos at European side of Black Sea at 25th km. outside the İstanbul, is attracting İstanbul residents during summer months. Belgrad Forest, inside from Black Sea, at European Side is the widest forest around İstanbul. İstanbul residents, at week ends, come here for family picnic with brazier at its shadows. 7 old water tank and some natural resources in the region compose a different atmosphere. Moğlova Aqueduct, which is constructed by Mimar Sinan during 16th century among Ottoman aqueducts, is the greatest one. 800 m. long Sultan Süleyman Aqueduct, which is passing over Golf Club, and also a piece of art of Mimar Sinan is one of the longest aqueducts within Turkey.
Polonezköy, which is 25 km. away from İstanbul, is founded at Asia coast during 19th century by Polish immigrants. Polonezköy, for walking in village atmosphere, travels by horse, and tasting traditional Polish meals served by relatives of initial settlers, is the resort point of İstanbul residents. Beaches, restaurants and hotels of Şile at Black Sea coast and 70 km. away from Üsküdar, are turning this place into one of the most cute holiday places of İstanbul. Region which is popular in connection with tourism, is the place where famous Şile cloth is produced.
Bayramoğlu - Darıca Bird Paradise and Botanic Park is a unique resort place 38 km. away from İstanbul. This gargantuan park with its trekking roads, restaurants is full of bird species and plants, coming from various parts of the world.
Sweet Eskihisar fisherman borough, to whose marina can be anchored by yachtsmen after daily voyages in Marmara Sea is at south east of İstanbul. Turkey's 19th century famous painter, Osman Hamdi Bey's house in borough is turned into a museum. Hannibal's tomb between Eskihisar and Gebze is one of the sites around a Byzantium castle.
There are lots of İstanbul residents' summer houses in popular holiday place 65 km. away from İstanbul, Silivri. This is a huge holiday place with magnificent restaurants, sports and health centers. Conference center is also attracting businessmen, who are escaping rapid tempo of urban life for "cultural tourism" and business - holiday mixed activities. Scheduled sea bus service is connecting İstanbul to Silivri.
Islands within Marmara Sea, which is adorned with nine islands, was the banishing place of the Byzantium princes. Today they are now wealthy İstanbul residents' escaping places for cool winds during summer months and 19th century smart houses. Biggest one of the islands is Büyükada. You can have a marvelous phaeton travel between pine trees or have a swim within one of the numerous bays around islands!
Other popular islands are Kınalı, Sedef, Burgaz and Heybeliada. Regular ferry voyages are connecting islands to both Europe and Asia coasts. There is a rapid sea bus service from Kabataş during summers.